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References Used Within This Web Site

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166 Ahmer, Brian. SMP [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 04 May 2003. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
140 Anabantoid Association of Great Britain. Betta bellica. AAGB Species Information Sheet. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
156 Anon., 1993. Computerized catalog of the fish collection.. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta balunga Herre 1940
154 Anon., 1999. Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).. Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta anabatoides Bleeker
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta chini Ng 1993
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
157 Anon., 2000. The ichthyologic collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Betta anabatoides Bleeker
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
155 Anon., 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution).. Smithsonian Institution - Division of Fishes. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
158 Anon., 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192, USA Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
21
Arkhipchuk, V.A., 1999. Chromosome database.. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Betta splendens Regan 1910
22
Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek and J.G. Walls, 1991 Dr. Axelrod's Atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Sixth edition. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
130 Badman's Tropical Fish [internet]. 3 September 2002. Available from: http://badmanstropicalfish.com/.  
24
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1985 Aquarien atlas. Bd. 2. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Germany.

Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta chini
Ng 1993
Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)

25
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1991 Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 1104 p. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta fusca Regan 1910
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
26
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1995 Aquarien Atlas. Bd. 4. Mergus Verlag GmbH, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Melle, Germany. 864 p. (566)

Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994

27
Baensch, H.A. and R. Riehl, 1997 Aquarien Atlas, Band 5. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 1148 p. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta balunga Herre 1940
Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
Betta prima Kottelat 1994
28
Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge (eds.), 1996 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 378 p. Betta chini Ng 1993
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
29
Baird, I. G., V. Inthaphaisy, P. Kisouvannalath, B. Phylavanh and B. Mounsouphom, 1999 The fishes of southern Lao. Lao Community Fisheries and Dolphin Protection Project. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao PDR.161 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
30
Bleeker, P. 1850. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Visschen met doolhofvormige kieuwen van den Soenda-Molukschen Archipel. Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunst. Wet. 1-15 Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
31
Bleeker, P. 1851. Nieuwe bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Borneo met beschrijving van eenige nieuwe soorten van zoetwatervisschen. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder. Indië 259-275 Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
32
Bleeker, P., 1851. Faunae ichthyologicae Javae insularumque adjacentium genera et species novae. Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder. Indië v. 1: 98-108. Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
12
(a) Bourdier, Eric. Authorisation [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 13 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.12:
(b) Bourdier, Eric. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 13 July 2002, 14 July 2002, 26 August 2002, 31 August 2002, 3 September 2002.
Betta sp. Mahachai
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta splendens Regan 1910
33

Britz, R. and J.A. Cambray, 2001. Structure of egg surfaces and attachment organs in anabantoids.. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 12(3):267-288.

Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
165 Burgett, Karen.  Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 12 April 2003. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
34
Cantor, T. E. 1849. Catalogue of Malayan fishes. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal i-xii + 981-1443 Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
127 Chevoleau, Philippe. Betta edithae. Communauté Internationale pour les Labyrinthidés [internet]. France; c.9 August 2002. [cited 3 September 2002]. Available from: http://cil.france.free.fr/. Betta edithae Vierke 1984
128 Chevoleau, Philippe. Betta unimaculata. Communauté Internationale pour les Labyrinthidés [internet]. France; c.9 August 2002. [cited 3 September 2002]. Available from: http://cil.france.free.fr/. Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
35
Chou, L.M. and T.J. Lam, 1989 Introduction of exotic aquatic species in Singapore. p. 91-97. In S.S. De Silva (ed.) Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Spec. Publ. Asian Fish. Soc.3, 154 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
142 Chunthapong, Jirapat.  Authorization to use intellectual properties [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 14 November 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
36
Coad, B.W., 1995 Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore. Betta splendens Regan 1910
134 Cumming, Stephen. 2002. Betta tussyae - Score One More Off The Wish List. AAGB Labyrinth 123, August. pp. 1-2. Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
37
Cuvier, G. and Valenciennes, A. 1846. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix-huitième. Suite du livre dix-huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Livre dix-neuvième. Des Ésoces ou Lucioïdes. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-xix + 2 pp. + 1-505 + 2 pp. Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846)
129 Dantec, Michel. Betta smaragdina Ladiges, 1972. Communauté Internationale pour les Labyrinthidés [internet]. France; c.9 August 2002. [cited 3 September 2002]. Available from: http://cil.france.free.fr/. Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
126 (a) Dantec, Michel and Philippe Chevoleau. Wild Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 3 September 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Dantec, Michel and Philippe Chevoleau. Communauté Internationale pour les Labyrinthidés [internet]. France; c.9 August 2002. [cited 3 September 2002].
Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta unimaculata
(Popta 1905)
38
de Beaufort, L. F. 1933. On some new or rare species of Ostariophysi from the Malay Peninsula and a new species of Betta from Borneo. Bull. Raffles Mus. 31-36 Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933
39
Eldredge, L.G., 1994 Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific islands. Volume I. Introduction of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific islands. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia, 127 p. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
40
Eschmeyer, W.N., Editor, 1998 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p. Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846)
16

(a) Fernando, Yohan. SMP [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 31 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Fernando, Yohan. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 11 August 2002.

Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
41
Fernando, Yohan . Betta edithae - a Pseudo Betta? Betta edithae Vierke 1984
42
Fernando, Yohan. Betta burdigala. Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
43
Fernando, Yohan. Betta picta (Sumatra). Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846)
44
Fernando, Yohan. Spawning Betta smaragdina - the "Emerald Betta". Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
131 (a) Flaherty, Danny. Hi Danny [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 9 September 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.12:
(b) Flaherty, Danny. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. August 2002 and September 2002.
Betta sp. Mahachai
126 Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. FishBase. [Internet Electronic Publication] 30 August 2002 [cited July 2002, August 2002] Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta chini Ng 1993
Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994
Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996
Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986
45
Grabda, E. and T. Heese, 1991 Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p. (in Polish) Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
137 Gonin, Herve and Jacques Laird. 2002. Betta sp. Bung Bihn. Labyrinth 123, August. pp. 5-7. (Reprinted from Le Makropode 2/02)

Betta sp. Bung Bihn

20
(a) Griffin, Gerald. Wild Bettas-SMP [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 14 August 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Griffin, Gerald. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 30 October 2002.
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
117 Griffin, Gerald. Betta picta: Not Very Beautiful, But Interesting Nonetheless Flare! Sep/Oct 1988. Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846)
118 Griffin, Gerald. Breeding Betta climacura. Flare! Mar/Apr 1990 Betta akarensis Regan 1910
119 Griffin, Gerald. Care and Spawning of Betta smaragdina. Flare! Mar/Apr 1990 Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
46
Gyldenholm, A.O. and J.J. Scheel., 1974 Chromosome numbers of fishes. I. p. 90-97. In J.P. Wourms, D.E. Semler, J.V. Merriner et.al. Genetic studies of fish: II. MSS Information Corporation, New York. Betta splendens Regan 1910
144 Harnishfeger, Robert "Doc".  Re: Mahachies.[electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 7 November 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta sp. Mahachai
120 Hellweg, Michael. Articles [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 14 August 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.  
19
Hellweg, Michael. Betta enisae, a "New" Species of Mouthbrooding Betta Aug. 2002. Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
168 Hellweg, Michael. I’ve Got a New Mouthbrooding Betta – Now What?. 2003. [168]  
47
Herre, A. W. C. T. 1940. Additions to the fish fauna of Malaya and notes on rare or little known Malayan and Bornean fishes. Bull. Raffles Mus. 27-61 Betta balunga Herre 1940
48
Hilton-Taylor, C., 2000 2000 IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xviii + 61 p. (with 1 CD-ROM) Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta chini Ng 1993
Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994
49
Hinegardner, R. and D.E. Rosen., 1972 Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Am. Nat. 106(951):621-644. Betta splendens Regan 1910
6
(a) Hiro. Betta [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 12 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Hiro. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 16 July 2002, 20 July 2002 and 7 August 2002.

Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta sp. Bangka
Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta sp. Kapuas
Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat, 1998
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996
Betta taeniata Regan 1910

150 Howe, Jeffrey C. 1992. Original Descriptions: Betta rutilans. FAMA, June. pp. 168. Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
50
Hugg, D.O., 1996 MAPFISH georeferenced mapping database. Freshwater and estuarine fishes of North America. Life Science Software. Dennis O. and Steven Hugg, 1278 Turkey Point Road, Edgewater, Maryland, USA. Betta splendens Regan 1910
159 Hureau, J.-C., 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum.. p. 225-227. In Atlas Preliminaire des Poissons d'Eaux Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environment, CEMAGREF et Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
141 International Betta Congress. 1986. Betta bellica (Sauvage 1884). IBC TA #WT-45. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
145 International Betta Congress. 1986. Betta taeniata. IBC TA No. WT-46. Betta taeniata Regan 1910
146 International Betta Congress. 1986. Betta fasciata (Regan 1910). IBC TA No. WT-55. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
152 International Betta Congress. 1986. Betta imbellis. IBC TA# WT-58 Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
51
Khoa, T.T. and T.T.T. Huong, 1993 Dinh Loai Cá Nuóc Ngot Vùng Dông Bang Sông Cuu Long Khoa Thuy San Truong Dai Hoc Can Tho, p 3-8. Betta taeniata Regan 1910
147

Kirtley, Paul. 1984. Spawning Betta fasciata. TFH.

Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
149 Kirtley, Paul. 1988. Breeding the Crescent Betta - Betta imbellis. TFH, January. pp. 50-52 Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
52

Klinkhardt, M, M. Tesche and H. Greven, 1995 Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.

Betta splendens Regan 1910
53
Kottelat, M. 1991. Notes on the taxonomy and distribution of some western Indonesian freshwater fishes, with diagnoses of a new genus and six new species (Pisces: Cyprinidae, Belontiidae, and Chaudhuriidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 273-2f Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
54
Kottelat, M. 1994. Diagnoses of two new species of fighting fishes from Thailand and Cambodia (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 297-304 Betta prima Kottelat 1994
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
55
Kottelat, M. 1995. Four new species of fishes from the middle Kapuas Basin, Indonesian Borneo (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae and Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 51-64 Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
56
Kottelat, M. and Ng, P. K. L. 1994. Diagnoses of five new species of fighting fishes from Banka and Borneo (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 65-78 Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994
57
Kottelat, M., 1985 Fresh-water fishes of Kampuchea. Hydrobiologia 121:249-279. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
58
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993 Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta fusca Regan 1910
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
Betta rubra Perugia 1893
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986
114 Kottelat, M. and A.J. Whitten, 1996 Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi: additions and corrections. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 8 p. Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996
59
Krummenacher, R. 1986. Betta waseri spec. nov. Aquaria (St Gallen) 177-182 Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986
60
Ladiges, W. 1972. Betta smaragdina nov. spec. Aquar. Terrar. Z. 190-191 Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
61
Ladiges, W. 1975. Betta imbellis nov. spec., der Friedliche Kampffisch. Aquar. Terrar. Z. 262-264 Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
62
Lever, C., 1996 Naturalized fishes of the world. Academic Press, California, USA. 408 p. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta pugnax
(Cantor, 1849)
Betta splendens Regan 1910
122 Liebetrau, Sue. B. brederi: The Giant Betta. 1975 [IBC TA No. WT-01]. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
123 Liebetrau, Sue. The "Other" Bettas. 1975 [IBC TA No. WT-02]. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta splendens Regan 1910
124 Liebetrau, Sue. Wild Bettas - Endangered and Incoming. 1975 [IBC TA No. WT-03]. Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta pugnax
(Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
125 Liebetrau, Sue. The "Unknown" Bettas. 1975 [IBC TA No. WT-04]. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
Betta pugnax
(Cantor, 1849)
63
Lim, K.K.P. and P.K.L. Ng, 1990 The freshwater fishes of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 160 p. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
17
Limhengco, Gilbert. [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 15 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.  
64
Martin-Smith, K.M. and H.H. Tan., 1998 Diversity of freshwater fishes from eastern Sabah: annotated checklist for Danum valley and a consideration of intter- and intra-catchment variability. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 46(2): 573-604 Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933
143 Miller, Edward.  RE: B. foerschi [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 3 November 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994
65
Mills, D. and G. Vevers, 1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 pp. Betta splendens Regan 1910
66
Mohsin, A.K.M. and M.A. Ambak, 1983 Freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Malaysia. 284 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
15
(a) Muller, Ken. Use of Wild Type Betta Pictures [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 24 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Muller, Ken. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. 24 July 2002 and 25 July 2002.
Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
8
Napraforgo (Kampffischesaquarium). Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 12 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
1
Naus, Eric Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 9 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
136 Neugebauer, Norbert. Translated by Mrs. R. Armitage. 2002. Betta patoti Produces Two Types Of Eggs. Labyrinth 123, August. pp. 2-4. [Reprinted from Der Makropode].

Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
Betta fusca Regan 1910

67
Ng, P. K. L. 1993. On a new species of Betta (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from peat swamps in Sabah, East Malaysia, Borneo. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 289-294 Betta balunga Herre 1940
Betta chini
Ng 1993
68
Ng, P. K. L. 1994. Diagnoses of five new species of fighting fishes from Banka and Borneo (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 65-78 Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994
69
Ng, P. K. L. and Kottelat, M. 1992. Betta livida, a new fighting fish (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from blackwater swamps in Peninsular Malaysia. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 177-182 Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992
70
Ng, P. K. L. and Kottelat, M. 1994. Revision of the Betta waseri species group (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 593-611. Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994
71
Ng, P.K.L. and M. Kottelat, 1992. Betta livida, a new fighting fish (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from blackwater swamps in Peninsular Malaysia.. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 3(2):177-182. Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992
72
Ng, P.K.L. and M. Kottelat, 1994 Revision of the Betta waseri species group (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Raffles Bull. Zool. 42(3):593-611. Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986
74
Ng, P.K.L., L.M. Chou and T.J. Lam, 1993 The status and impact of introduced freshwater animals in Singapore. Biol. Conserv. 64:19-24. Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
75
Nichols, J.T. and R.C. Murphy, 1922 On a collection of marine fish from Peru. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 46(9):501-516. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
76
Nielsen, J.G., 1981 Citharidae. In W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Vol. 2, FAO, Rome. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
3
(a) Panitvong, Nonn. Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 11 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Panitvong, Nonn. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. July 2002, August 2002.

Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta sp. Mahachai
Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta prima Kottelat 1994
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta splendens Regan 1910
Betta tussyae Schaller 1985

77
Panitvong, Nonn. pannitvong.com [homepage on the internet]. Breeding My Betta bellica [report on the internet]. Thailand; c. 2002 [cited July 2002]. Available from: http://www.panitvong.com/. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
78
Panitvong, Nonn. pannitvong.com [homepage on the internet]. Mouth Brooder Betta of Thailand. Thailand; c. 2002 [cited July 2002]. Available from: http://www.panitvong.com/. Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta prima Kottelat 1994
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
116

Panitvong, Nonn. Thai Freshwater Explorer [internet]. B. sp. Mahachai [report on the internet]. Thailand; c. April 2002 [cited August 2002]. Available from: http://www.panitvong.com/.

Betta sp. Mahachai
160 Persevalle, Michaël. None [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 28 December 2002.  Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
79
Perugia, A. 1893. Di alcuni pesci raccolti in Sumatra dal Dott. Elio Modigliani. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (Ser. 2a) 241-247 Betta rubra Perugia 1893
4
(a) Phumchoosri, Atison . Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 7 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Phumchoosri, Atison . Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. July 2002.
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta prima Kottelat 1994
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
138 Pinto, Tony. 2002. Betta edithae - A Guppy Among Mouthbrooding Bettas. AAGB Labyrinth 123, August. pp. 7-9. Betta edithae Vierke 1984
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
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148 Pinto, Tony. 1998. The Quest for Betta Livida. TFH, July. pp. 88-93. Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992
153 Pinto, Tony. 2000. An Elusive Malaysian Beauty - Betta persephone. TFH, August. Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
80
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81
Post, A., 1965 Vergleichende Untersuchungen der Chromosomenzahlen bei Süßwasser-Teleosteern. Z. Zool. Syst. Evol. Forsch. 3:47-93. Betta splendens Regan 1910
161 Prasartkul, Arthit. None [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 27 November 2002.  Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.  
162 Priest, Alexander and Susan Priest. Betta enisae [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 23 December, 2002, 29 December 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
163 Priest, Susan, 2001.  A New Generation of Betta enisae: or: Breeding the "Metamorphosis Fish".  Modern Aquarium, October.  pp. 5-8. Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
82
Rainboth, W.J., 1996 Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
83
Rassa, T.S., 1983 Fish. Vol. 4, Life of animals. V.E. Sokolov (ed.), Moscow: Prosveschenie. 575p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
84
Regan, C. T. 1909. The Asiatic fishes of the family Anabantidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 767-787 Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta fusca Regan 1910
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta splendens Regan 1910
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
85
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1991 Aquarien Atlas. Band. 1. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, Germany. 992 p. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta splendens Regan 1910
86
Riehl, R. and H.A. Baensch, 1996 Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 992 p. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta splendens Regan 1910
87
Roberts, T. R. 1989. The freshwater fishes of western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci. i-xii + 1-210 Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
88
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. Betta akarensis Regan 1910
Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta fusca Regan 1910
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta macrostoma Regan 1910
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta rubra Perugia 1893
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
Betta splendens Regan 1910
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905)
89
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
10
Rossi, David J. Permission To Use Photos On IBC-SMP Website [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 7July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
5
Sasaki, Kei (Betta House). Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 12 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
Betta enisae Kottelat 1995
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994
Betta sp. Pangkalanbun
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846)
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991
Betta simplex Kottelat 1994
Betta splendens Regan 1910
Betta taeniata Regan 1910
90
Sauvage, H. E. 1884. Note sur une collection de poissons recueillie a Pérak, presqu'Ile de Malacca. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 216-220. Betta bellica Sauvage 1884
91
Schaller, D. 1986. Laubschlupf. Eine Überlebensstrategie in einem besonderen Biotop und die Beschreibung einer neuen Kampffischart. Aquar. Terrar. Z. 297-300 Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
92
Schaller, D. 1985. Betta tussyae spec. nov., ein neuer Kampffisch aus Malaysia (vorläufige Mitteilung). Aquar. Terrar. Z. 348-350 Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
93
Schaller, D. and Kottelat, M. 1989. Betta strohi sp. n., ein neuer Kampffisch aus Südborneo (Osteichthyes: Belontiidae). Aquar. Terrar. Z. 31, 33-37 Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989
94
Schliewen, U., 1992 Aquarium fish. Barron's Education Series, Incorporated. 159 p Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972
2
Schlüter, Michael. Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 10 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989
95
Schuster, W.H. and R. Djajadiredja, 1952 Local common names of Indonesian fishes. W.V. Hoeve, Bandung, Indonesia. 276 p. Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
151 Sommer, Wolfgang. 1990. The Peaceful Betta: A Novelty No Longer. TFH, November. pp. 90-96. Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
18
Stuart, Scotty representing the IBC. Articles [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 29 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use TA material.  
96
Suvatti, C., 1981 Fishes of Thailand. Royal Institute of Thailand, Bangkok. 379 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
97
Svardson, G. and T. Wickbom, 1942 The chromosomes of two species of Anabantidae (Teleostei), with a new case of sex reversal. Hereditas 28(1-2):212-216. Betta splendens Regan 1910
98
Taki, Y., 1974 Fishes of the Lao Mekong Basin. United States Agency for International Development Mission to Laos Agriculture Division. 232 p. Betta splendens Regan 1910
99
Taki, Y., 1978 An analytical study of the fish fauna of the Mekong basin as a biological production system in nature. Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology Special Publications no. 1, 77 p. Tokyo, Japan. Betta splendens Regan 1910
100
Tan, H. H. 1998. Description of two new species of the Betta waseri group (Teleostei: Osphronemidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 281-287 Betta pi Tan 1998
Betta renata Tan 1998
101
Tan, H. H. and Kottelat, M. 1998. Redescription of Betta picta (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) and description of B. falx sp. n. from central Sumatra. Rev. Suisse Zool. 557-568 Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
102
Tan, H. H. and Kottelat, M. 1998. Two new species of Betta (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) from the Kapuas Basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Raffles Bull. Zool. 41-51 Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat, 1998
103
Tan, H. H. and M. Kottelat, 1998 (Sept.). Redescription of Betta picta (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) and description of B. falx sp. n. from central Sumatra. Rev. Suisse Zool. v. 105 (no. 3): 557-568. Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846)
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Tan, H. H. and Ng, P. K. L. 1996. Redescription of Betta bellica Sauvage, 1884 (Teleostei: Belontiidae), with description of a new allied species from Sumatra. Raffles Bull. Zool. 143-155 Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996
105
Tan, H. H. and Tan, S. H. 1994. Betta miniopinna, a new species of fighting fish from Pulau Bintan, Riau Archipelago, Indonesia (Teleostei: Belontiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 41-44 Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta tussyae Schaller 1985
106
Tan, H.H. and S.H. Tan, 1996 Redescription of the Malaysian fighting fish Betta pugnax (Teleostei: Belontiidae), and description of Betta pulchra, new species from Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 44(2):419-434. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996
11
Terceira, Tony. Wild Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 18 September 2002, 19 September 2002 and 15 November 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.

Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta falx
Tan & Kottelat 1998
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991

7
(a) Thorup, Jesper. Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 12 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Thorup, Jesper. Various [electronic mail and Instant Message Communications on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. July 2002, August 2002.
Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
121 Thorup, Jesper. Thorup's opdraetsside [homepage on the internet] Betta albimarginata, Kottelat & Ng 1994. [article on the internet] Denmark; c. August 2002 [cited 29 August 2002]. Available from: http://www.fishbreeding.dk/. Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994
9

(a) Tran, Ralph. Pictures [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 10 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.
(b) Tran, Ralph. Various [electronic mail on the Internet]. Messages to: Ralph Tran. July 2002, August 2002.

Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992
Betta coccina Vierke 1979
Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
Betta sp. Mahachai
Betta persephone Schaller, D. 1986
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991

107
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Betta foerschi Vierke 1979
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110

Vierke, J. 1984. Betta taeniata Regan, 1909 und Betta edithae spec. nov., zwei Kampffische von Süd-Borneo. das Aquarium (Aqua Terra) 58-63

Betta edithae Vierke 1984
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Vierke, Jorg. Translated by Annemarie Lambrich. 1985. Betta taeniata Rediscovered. TFH, June, pp. 22-26. Betta taeniata Regan 1910

133

Vierke, Jorg. 1989. A Showpiece Of Fish Behavior: The Banded Betta. TFH, July. pp. 54-58. Betta taeniata Regan 1910
139 Vierke, Jörg, Dr. Translated by William Charlton. 1987. Breeding Betta bellica. TFH, December. pp. 10-15.

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135 vd. Voort, Stefan, 2002.  Betta cf. burdigala ‘Kubu’. Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
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vd. Voort, Stefan, 2002.  Betta coccina, Vierke 1979.

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Weber, M. and de Beaufort, L. F. 1922. The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. IV. Heteromi, Solenichthyes, Synentognathi, Percesoces, Labyrinthici, Microcyprini. E. J. Brill, Leiden. Fish. Indo-Aust. Arch. i-xiii + 1-410 Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
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Welcomme, R.L., 1988 International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 294. 318 p. Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849)
Betta splendens Regan 1910
14

Wellner, Peter. Bettas [electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Ralph Tran. 15 July 2002. Message granting SMP authorization to use intellectual property.

Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994
Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922
115

Wellener, Peter. Internationalen Gemeinschaft für Labyrinthfische Regionalgruppe Nordrhein-Westfalen [internet]. Reisebericht "Ko Samui": eine reise ins land des "Pla Kat" [Report On A Journey to "Ko Samui": Travels To The Country Of The "Pla Kat"]. Germany; c. 2002 [cited August 2002]. Available from: http://www.labyrinthfisch.de/.

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Witte, K-E. and J. Schmidt, 1992 Betta brownorum, a new species of anabantoids (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from northwestern Borneo, with a key to the genus. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):305-330. Betta splendens Regan 1910
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992

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